The Guano empire and Britain’s other Informal empire.

Let’s start this blog with a bit of controversy! Most people do not associate the British Empire with South America.  However, some of England’s very first footsteps into empire building took place along the Northern shore of this Continent. Some influenced by the new diaspora of American Exiles (loyalists) who fled in 1783 after the last British forces pulled out of New York. (1)            

Furthermore, Britain was to play a leading role in challenging Spanish control of the vast continent and provided help and expertise to revolutionaries and nationalists in the wake of the Napoleonic Wars. (2)

South America was to become a key part of Britain’s ‘Informal Empire’ especially in the Nineteenth but also into the first half of the Twentieth Century. Britain provided investment, expertise and technology throughout most of the continent as she gained much of the value of Empire without the unnecessary costs and burdens of formal control and governance. Britain’s relationship to South America was to be very different from her relationships to most of the rest of the World – but no less influential. (3)

In this environment Peru rose from the ashes on the back of Guano exports and became a period of stability for Peru and the foreigners known as the Guano era. Thomas Wheelock found his opportunity to make his fortune.

The term “Guano” applies to natural mineral deposits consisting of excrements, eggshells and carcasses of dead seabirds found in almost rainless, hot-dry climatic regions and corresponding fertilizers. The most significant nitrogen Guano is the Peru-Guano, which has been used over 2000 years as agricultural fertilizer in Peru. (4)

The age of guano

A decisive turning point came in 1838 when two merchants sent samples of the Peru Guano to William Myers, a successful businessman from Liverpool, who was also interested in agriculture. The fertilization trials he has carried out with these samples must have been successful that Myers invested in Guano trading and ordered a larger quantity for the first time.

On July 23, 1839, 30 bags of Guano reached the port of Liverpool with the ship “Heroine” from Valparaiso, and Myers distributed the Guano to other interested farmers for experimental purposes.

For the first time, crop yields skyrocketed, and the bird fertilizer proved to be far superior to the hitherto common manure and the “Night Soil” harvested from the city latrines. At the instigation of William Myers, his local Peruvian business partner, Don Francisco Quirós, in Lima, signed a treaty with the Peruvian state on November 10, 1840, for the monopoly on all Guano mining.

The demand for Guano rose rapidly in England and shortly thereafter in the rest of Europe. The Guano boom began, what began as a rental contract system granted to an investor, Francisco Quirós, resulted in an agreement that granted the State 64 percent of the profits and finally agreed to give the latter 75 percent of the liquid income. (5)

The commercialization of guano attracted new traders, adventurers and craftsmen not only British but from all over Europe. In the mid-1840s, guano was the main product of Peruvian exports. The guanera islands of Peru were spread across the different provinces of the coast and had accumulated over the year’s immense amounts of bird manure.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(6)

Investors

The Republic of Peru was in fiscal crisis as it had failed to cover the costs that had been generated since the battles of independence in 1811.Neither the state nor national capitalists could compete with European and American companies in the investments that meant the exploitation of guano. The dominance of foreigners and the absence of Peruvian investors were questioned in the 1850s by Congress, which decided not to sign new contracts if domestic capitalists were not included. Thus, foreigners formed joint ventures, but without allowing national participation to exceed them.

The Profits were incredible, of the records that have survived in one shipment alone: earned around £ 100,000 in the first large quantities of Guano supplies, which, according to current purchasing power, amounts to around £13 million in today’s currency. It was recorded that at one time 1 pound (453 grams) of Guano cost $76 ($2500 in today’s money) (7)

Thomas Wheelock became member of one of the syndicates.

A list of British Investors living in Peru at the time shows the following people:

John Blacker, Alexander Blacker, Stephen Henry Sulivan, John Barton, Edward Robertson, Charles Wilthew, George Hodges Nugent, Charles Higginson, Henry Swayne, Clements R. Markham, Charles Edward Stubbs, Charles Eggert, Samuel Went, William Pitt Adams, William Russell Grace, Thomas Eldredge, Thomas Wheelock, Pedro Terry, John Rowe, Charles Rowe, John Mathison, Thomas Conroy, Joseph Brown, James Henry, George Logan, Charles Thomas, G. J. Rodewald, Gerald Garland, John Gallagher, John Robinson, Charles Williams, Chas. Browne, John and Francis Bryce, John Black, Archibald Smith, J. A. Burnett, J. W. Clarke, John Mackie, Adam Butters, Henry Humphreys, John and Charles Edwards, Thomas Dawson, Gerrit S. Backus, Douglas Hastings, Horatio Bolton, James Graham, Hugh Torrence, James Wingate, Samuel Duncan, Norman Evans, John Ward, John Gunner, Henry Hammond, Charles Kemish, Alex E. Prentice, Walter S. Church, José P. Davis, José Hindle, Thomas Buckley, Max Blum, Henry Hilton Leigh, Thomas Cole. (8)

The investors had to bear all expenses, from extraction to sale. The gross income was denoted for expenses and the net proceeds were divided between the tax office and the Investors. The export enabled Peru to pay their external debt (especially to England) and the payment of internal debt to families and traders who had contributed to the wars of independence or the uprisings that subsequently happened. To claim payment, individuals or families who had collaborated with patriotic causes had to provide consolidation bonds, which were documents certifying the debts and who in some cases bore the signatures of the liberators José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar. (8) (9)

Some reports indicate that some of the investors were making a profit between £30,000.00 to £100,000.00 a year (roughly £4 Million to 13 Million in today’s money), Thomas cashed in around 1862 and moved to Bordeaux, France. Diaries show he made a fabulous fortune leaving his oldest son (Thomas Alfred) in charge of his Peruvian affairs.

The Guano Boom rush was short-lived (20-30 years) partly because the supplies dipped and the discovery of fertilizers through mining and by industrially producing replacing the need to scoop the excrement from the rocks. The new chemical fertilizers could take nitrogen out of the air and deliver it straight to the soil.  It’s thought that artificial fertilizers now feed about half the world. The market wasn’t big enough for the both of them, and guano’s star descended as it had risen, bringing the Peruvian economy down with it.

But while it lasted, the money made by all parties was a fabulous amount that could be compared to the California Gold Rush and Thomas Wheelock took advantage of the opportunity.

NEXT Blog : The Oxford Dictionary of Family Names in Britain and Ireland

References:
1.- Liberty's Exiles: American Loyalists in the Revolutionary World - Maya Jasanoff ISBN-10: 9780007180080
2.- https://www.britishempire.co.uk/resource/southamerica.htm
2.- https://www.britishempire.co.uk/maproom/southamerica.htm
3.- Informal Empire? An Exploration in the History of Anglo-Argentine Relations, 1810–1914 – Volume 24,Issue 2 May 1992 , pp. 419-436 Andrew Thompson
4.- https://www.intechopen.com/books/seabirds/guano-the-white-gold-of-the-seabirds
5.- Fertile Fortune – The Story of Tyntesfield James Miller (25 May 2006). . ISBN 1905400403.
6.- Peruvian Ministry of the Environment
7.- https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/when-the-western-world-ran-on-guano 
8.- https://elmisteriodelpasado.blogspot.com/search?q=Guano
9.- The Diary of Heinrich Witt, Volume 3 & 5
10.- Article in Webblog Intheboatshed.Net. 2011 Jenkins H. Guano trade by W. Myers—. http://intheboatshed.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/Myers-Co.pdf 
11.- In: mare – Die Zeitschrift der Meere, No. 53. Kanter O. Kleckern und klotzen. 2005. http://www.olafkanter.de/pdf/geschichte/ok_kleckernklotzen.pdf

Thomas’s rise to power and the advent of the Guano empire.

Thomas Wheelock Walford (mother’s maiden name) arrived into Lima, Peru circa 1834.  He was around 21 years of age; he is better known as the founder of the Wheelock line in Latin America.

Thomas Wheelock (Circa 1850s)
Thomas Wheelock (Circa 1850s)

After Peru’s Independence (from Spain) the British merchants achieved to place themselves in key (strategic) places of Chile and Peru, in the big cities and in the main seaports from where the British Companies controlled the local and regional trade. It has been estimated that 10% of the British Empire export market reached this new burgeoning market. (1)

There were many Agencies and merchants of the companies of London, Liverpool and Hull such as Gibbs and Co., Read, Huth Gruning & Co. and Bates and Stokes Co. (3) In these booming economies of South America, Thomas arrived into Peru just after his twentieth birthday.

He was born in Market Drayton, hence the connection to Tayleurs House (See first Blog) Shropshire on the 13th of December 1813, the youngest of seven Children the son of Mr. Thomas Wheelock Sherratt and Mrs. Elizabeth Walford. He was baptized in the Independent Methodist Church. Thomas’ Wheelock Walford Family were merchants and farmers.

His father was the steward for the Earl of Lichfield and he was one of the innovators for modernizing of the English Agriculture and some of the modern machinery of the time can still be seen at Park Farm inside the grounds of Shugborough Hall (4)

Entrance to Park Hall Farm in Shugborough

Plaque at the Farm

 

It is noteworthy that also residing in Peru there were direct relatives to him, Jonathan Buckley from Liverpool who married his older sister Emma and whose daughter (his niece Emma) would have a profound influence in the years to come….. At one point he switches employments to Henry Reed & Co (In other documents known as Henry Read) a subsidiary and representatives of Tayleur House. He worked as Chief Clerk.

The Agency rented out Casa Osambela at the time the grandest house of Lima (three floors Painted Blue in the photo) build in 1793 (by Don Martín de Osambela y Osambela Descendant of one of the grand families of Navarra at the time of his death in 1825 at the Battle of Ayacucho and the last Royalist stand at the Real Felipe Fortress ending Spanish Empire Domination. he left a fortune of at least 1.5 Million pesos Fuertes = ($F) ….17 “Pesos Fuertes” = to one ounce of gold (27.06 grams) ). A fascinating history for another blog but one of the many myths of this gentleman is that he left Spain due to a dalliance with one of the Kings Daughters! (5)

House of Osambela
Main Courtyard of the House Osambela
Entrance

After Martin Osambela’s death His family was financially ruined and had to find ways to ends meet. Due to the demands of the new republican government and the confiscation of properties. (5)

The house was therefore either sold or rented out to Henry Reed & Co while the Osambela live there, Thomas Wheelock settled in his new employment and there he met around 1836-37 Mariana Osambela a young widow (Her Husband passed away in 1834) and second Daughter of Martin Osambela. Thomas Wheelock married Mariana in 1839, Her full name: Mariana Osambela Ureta was 25 years old. Her mother was Mrs. Mariana Ureta y Bermudez, born in Lima belonged to a well to do family of second-generation Spanish (“criollos”) Despite the financial and political downfall for Martin’s family, Thomas’s marriage to Mariana Osambela Ureta placed him as a prominent family man in Lima’s Society.  (6) (8)

Uniform from the War of Independence at Real Felipe Fortress

Mariana had a daughter from her previous marriage Juana Rosa Riera-Osambela (changed her name to Wheelock after adoption and who survived into adulthood) who married a Scottish engineer by the name of Alexander Prentice from Greenock, Renfrew, Scotland and had 12 or 13 children. (7)

Thomas became a very shrewd businessman with investments in Market speculation and loans to the local markets (many of these loans made for infrastructure were consumed in war and redrawing boundaries).  in the light and gas company of Lima and the Water works. By the mid 1840’s he became the head of the agency at the return of Henry Read back to England and that enable him to build British interests in the region and represent several agencies by the 1850’s. His real fortune would come when he decided to invest in Guano and the Rise of the British Informal Empire. (9)

NEXT Article: The Guano empire.

References:

1.- “A New Economic History of Argentina” Cambridge Alan M. Taylor and Della Paolera Gerardo. University Press 2003

2.- British Trade with Latin America in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Victor Bulmer-Thomas

3.- Anglo Peruvian Commercial and financial relations. 1825-1865. William M. Matthew PHD. Thesis 1970

4.- https://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/shugborough-estate/features/park-farm-at-shugborough

5.- “Don Martín de Osambela, comerciante navarro de los siglos XVIII/XIX, y su descendencia en el Perú” – Anuario de Estudios Americanos , Teodoro Hampe Martinez

6.- The Diary of Heinrich Witt, Volume 3

7.- The Diary of Heinrich Witt, Volume 4

8.- The Wheelock Family in Peru…during the XIX Century… Jaime Wheelock Roman

9.- “The Imperialism of Free Trade” Economic History Review John Gallagher and Ronald Robinson

New Series, Vol. 6, No. 1 (1953), pp. 1-15

Setting the scene and the building of South America -Introduction

Thomas Wheelock arrived in Peru in 1832 with opportunities to be made. Thomas had been hired by the Tayleur House, a merchant and shipping company out of Market Drayton, starting at the bottom of the ladder as a Clerk. Thomas arrives following upheavals in South America which would not be settled until 1850.

To understand the beginning of British influence in South America there needs to be an understanding of the political situation of the entire Latin region. British and European migration to South America was affected by events such as the Napoleonic Invasion of Spain which triggered the Wars of Independence in Latin America and opened new trade markets.

In 1825 Mainland Spanish America split into more than a dozen separate countries, following the administrative divisions of the colonial system. The difficulty for the inhabitants of these countries was not, however, as simple as the demarcation of geographic boundaries. Rather, the recently liberated countries of Latin America faced the much more daunting challenge of defining and consolidating new nations. The inhabitants of each country set out on programs to create a postcolonial political, economic, and social order. The obstacles confronting them were imposing. (1)

This was a land of opportunity due to the collapse of the Spanish Empire and the subsequent wars of Independence creating a political vacuum in the new countries.

To embark on the trip from Europe to South America you needed to have capital or a job secured, the trip took several months. Most Europeans would depart from Liverpool  to Tenerife,  then 5- 6 months across the Atlantic via Tierra Del Fuego to Valparaiso (Or Callao)  – Arica – Quilca. This was no trip for the faint hearted with deaths and seas sickness among common occurrences.

Sometimes a ship on arrival in South America would find their trip diverted to the nearest safe port that was not in battle. An entry from 1824 talks about the Grand Port of Callao and being unable to dock so they were forced to head to Valparaiso:

Samuel Duncan, whom Moens had left in charge of the Lima house when he left about twelve months ago, wrote that business was 50% worse than it then had been. Since February Lima and Callao were again in possession of the Royalists, commanded by Canterrac, to them Callao had been delivered up by mutinous black regiments. Also the Intermedios were occupied by the Spaniards and it was expected that Bolivar would shortly give them battle. The whole coast had been declared under blockade by the Patriots, but this Captain Maling of H.B.M.S. “Cambridge” was only willing to acknowledge as far as regarded Callao, the forces of the Patriots not being sufficient to effect the actual blockade of the other ports. Amongst the English in Valparaiso the embezzlement of about $8000 committed by the Captain’s clerk of H.M.S. “Tartar” gave rise to much talk and conversation. (2)

*(HBMS – Stands for His Britannic Majesty’s Ship)

Depending on social status a European with means and a secured future would meet the likes of Simon Bolivar or the British Consul, European Impressions of Simon Bolivar in 1825 are as follows:

Bolivar was a man of the middle size, and of a spare make. His face of a darkish tinge, His forehead is well shaped and very high. His eyes, the colour of which I could not distinguish are piercing, his nose long and straight, his mouth large; his mustachios thin and long, I thought to become him well; but when he smiled a harsh and deeply marked wrinkle from the nose down to the mouth, became apparent. Amongst his aides-de-camp was an extremely fair youth, with hair which might be called white; he was Belford Hinton Wilson, in later years British Chargé d’Affaires in Perú. (2).

NEXT Article: Thomas’s rise to power and the advent of the Guano empire.

References:

1.- https://www.britannica.com/place/Latin-America/Building-new-nations-1826-50

2.- The Diary of Heinrich Witt, Volume 3

4.- Anglo Peruvian Commercial and financial relations. 1825-1865. William M. Matthew PHD. Thesis 1970

3.- Classwell Images

 

Happy New Year and Best wishes for 2020

Happy New year to all Wheelock’s, and all the best for 2020.

I’ve signed up to the Guild of One-Name Studies 2020 blogging challenge, and will be aiming to blog here more regularly over the coming months.

The long-term aim is to encourage me and others to blog more here about Wheelock’s research, history and other pertinent information, there will be an influx of posts over the next three months at least 2 a month.

Topics will vary.  Starting with South America before moving on to other regions.

Another theme will be to blog about the Boer War and WW1, two areas rarely discussed.

I will also publish Ancestry.com when appropriate and new family line blogs planned.

If all goes to plan this will be a very busy year. If you have any information or you want to contribute, please contact me.

Blogs returning in 2020

I know I haven’t written or given people news. but I am returning in January 2020 with new blogs and information.

Come back on January 5th the first of a series of 10 blogs will be published.

Have a Merry Christmas and see you in the New Year

How the Census Changed America

Everything has a beginning; Data Processing has its origins back to 1790.

The simple act of enumeration created data processing, led to the establishment of the National Archives, and rooted a rootless people.

From the New Yorker, publishes on the 1st of May

How the Census Changed America

On her 60th birthday, Barbie honours 20 Sheroes

For 60 years, Barbie has championed girls, inspired generations to believe through make believe and showed them that they have choices. With more than 200 careers, Barbie continues to evolve to be a modern, relevant role model for all ages. The brand believes that girls should never know a world, job, or dream, that women haven’t conquered. And as she turns 60 today, it is honouring 20 role models across 18 countries speaking 14 different languages only to inspire girls to follow their heart when it comes to deciding their career.

My own Cousin has been celebrated, Karla Wheelock

First Latin-American woman to climb the Seven Summits, the highest Mountains in the world, she is an Alpinist, author and Conference speaker.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Full list:

  • Adwoah Aboah, Activist and model, UK
  • Yara Shahidi, Actor, model and activist, US
  • Naomi Osaka, Tennis player, US
  • Kelsea Ballerini, Singer and songwriter, US
  • Kristina Vogel, Cycling champion, Germany
  • Dipa Karmakar, Gymnastics champion, India
  • Chen Man, Visual artist, China
  • Melodie Robinson, Sports journalist and presenter, New Zealand
  • Karla Wheelock, Mountaineer, writer and lecturer, Mexico
  • Tessa Virtue, Ice skater, Canada
  • Lisa Azuelos, Director, France
  • Eleni Antoniadou, Nasa scientist, Greece
  • Rosanna Marziale, Chef, Italy
  • Ita Buttrose, AO, OBE, journalist and editor, Australia
  • Tetsuko Kuroyanagi, Actor, talk show host and author, Japan
  • Mariana Costa, Entrepreneur and activist, Peru
  • Iwona Blecharczyk, Professional truck driver, Poland
  • Gulse Birsel, Columnist, screenwriter and actor, Turkey
  • Maya Gabeira, Big-wave surfer, Brazil
  • Lyasan Utiasheva, TV show host and rhythmic gymnastics champion, Russia

1939 Census – Seminar

Here’s a video from a recent Seminar that I attended regarding the 1939 Register. What is unique is the only Census made public under the 100 year rule, Census are usually done every 10 years since 1801, this particular one what makes it unique because it was done in 1939 in the advent of World War 2, so outside the normal convention, great source of Research for anyone. enjoy worth watching…

Raw Data how it looks

I have pretty much completed the family and now taking a break of sorts from it. Back to doing research. below is an example how raw data looks like.

When I first receive the data is all just names and dates then for me is just a matter of interpreting, some comments even though it doesn’t make sense are my notes so I understand for future reference or research.

So to get to the family tree in a final format is a matter cross referencing and tabulating the data. I hope this helps in how research in genealogy works.

Shropshire, Whitchurch Parish Registers, baptisms 1633-1732

23     Jul    1679         John               s          Philleman Whillock

4       Sep  1691         William          s          Philemon Wheelock

30     Dec  1704         Mary              dau     John Wheelock of Whitchurch

15     Dec  1705         Sarah             dau     John Wheelock of Whitchurch

24     Apr   1708         John               s          John Whillock of Whitchurch

23     Feb  1711/2     Anne              dau     John Whillock of Whitchurch

18     Oct  1719         Elizabeth       dau     John Whillock and Sarah of Whitchurch

marriages 1627-1744

24     Sep  1678         Philemon Wheelock & Jone Edwards

burials 1681-1750

7       Feb  1681/2     Phillemon      s          Phillemon Whillocks

7       Sep  1691         William          s          Philemon Wheelock

26     Jun   1703         Philemon Whilock of Whitchurch

6       Sep  1710         John               s          John Wheelock of Whitchurch

31     Dec  1710         Ann                 dau     Philemon Whilock of Whitchurch

8       Apr   1723         John Wheelock of Whitchurch

I know these are a bit early but Whitchurch is a border parish with Cheshire so thought they might be worth following through at some point.

Work done at Stafford CRO 27/7/99, 2.0-4.45

Written up with all this report 1/8/99, 10.45-11.15, 2.0-4.15

This first section was done before I went to Shrewsbury, and is the Tatenhill group

Noted Tatenhill St. Michael is on IGI from BTs only.

F926/1 and F3625/1/ baps and burs 1700-1812, F3625/1/4 mars 1754-82

Baptisms:

25     Apr   1764         Thomas         s          Richard & Mary Wheelock

26     Jun   1766         Mary              dau     Richard & Mary Wheelock

28     Jun   1767         Richard          s          Richard & Mary Wheelock

19     Nov 1768         John               s          Richard & Mary Wheelock

26     Apr   1772         William          s          Richard & Mary Wheelock

29     May 1774         George          s          Richard & Mary Wheelock

16     Jun   1777         Alice               dau     Richard & Mary Wheelock

18     Sep  1785         Thomas         s          Thomas & Jane Wheelock

25     May 1806         Francis           s          Sarah Wheelock of Dunstall, spurious

26     Oct  1806         Mary              dau     John & Sarah Wheelock

6       Sep  1807         Thomas         s          Lydia Wheelock, spurious

Note no bap of a Richard c.1737 – I feel this was a patron entered guess based on LDS standard formula for calculating birth date from marriage date.

Marriages:

27     Jun   1763         Richard Wheelock (x) and Mary Clarke (x) both of this parish, witn. John Slater & William Earp

18     Apr   1785         Thomas Wheelock (x) of parish of Netherseal & Jane Batthew (x) of this parish, by banns, witn. William Rowley & John Cholderton.  Banns register exists for this period, on same fiche, searched and found entry but adds nothing

3       Oct  1790         Richard Wheelock & Elizabeth Newbold  botp

Netherseal is in Leicestershire and there is nothing on the IGI for this Thomas.

Burials:

14     Oct  1777         Alice                           dau Richard & Mary Wheelock

2       Jun   1778         Mary                          wf Richard Wheelock

23     Dec  1812         Sarah Wheelock      pauper of Dunstall

Then I checked the IGI for Staffs and noted:

Thomas Wheelock and Jane having children in Burton: 1788 Mary, 1794 Alice

William Wheelock & Ann having children in Burton: 1794 Mary, 1799 Ann

Thomas Wheelock & Elizabeth having children in Colwich:  1804 Emma, 1807 John

George Wheelock & Elizabeth having children in Barton under Needwood:  1797 John

Uttoxeter events including names Richard and Thomas, 1765, Richard 1744 and 1738.  Decided this looked promising so followed it up:

F3891/1/6 Uttoxeter St. Mary.  Baps and mars are on IGI for mid C18th so concentrated on burs.

4       Oct  1739         Elizabeth       dau     Richard Wheelock

20     Jun   1740         Thomas Wheelock

25     Nov 1741         Mary              wf       Richard Wheelock

21     Sep  1744         Richard          s          Richard Wheelock and Mary his wife

19     Apr   1748         Richard          s          Richard Wheelock

moved back to F3891/1/5 for bap of first Richard

16     Jul    1738         Richard          s          Richard Wheelock and Mary his wife

there was no bap for the second Richard buried.

So could there be 2 Richard and Marys?   There was one odd bap to a Richard and Mary in Checkley in 1731 but otherwise I couldn’t see anything that sorted these out.

Work done at Shrewsbury CRO 28/7/99, 1.30-4.45

Market Drayton Independent Chapel:  original records are at PRO where you should be able to order prints.  I was using the transcript in the Shropshire Parish Record Society vol.II (indexed)

13     Dec  1808         Elizabeth       dau     Thomas & Elizabeth Wheelock of Turley Castle, parish of Drayton-in-Hales, co. Stafford, born 25 Nov

4       May 1812         Joseph           s          Thomas & Elizabeth Wheelock of Turley Castle, parish of Drayton-in-Hales, co. Stafford, born 4 Apr

14     Dec  1813         Thomas         s          Thomas & Elizabeth Wheelock of Turley Castle, parish of Drayton-in-Hales, co. Stafford, born 13 Dec

(Drayton-in-Hales is the same place as Market Drayton.  Parts of this parish are technically in Staffordhsire.  Turley, usually Tyrley, was a township in the Staffordshire part, a peculiar whose wills were proved in a manoral court, but within Lichfield diocese)

1851 census index Market Drayton negative.

1841 census HO107/0899/4-5 went right through this but negative for your line as so far established, though I couldn’t find any ref to Tyrley except one household crossed through with a note “included in a different schedule”.  There was just one Wheelock ref which I noted and which I am writing up because in the light of what I found later it could be relevant:

HO107/0899/5 fo.34, p.18 Cheshire Street

Susan Wheelock     55                   draper              N

Caroline Cheshire   30                  

Henrietta Cheshire 7

Sophia Cheshire      4

+ 1 servant.

I think the Cheshire family were probably lodgers, especially as so little information was given on them.

There was no Market Drayton parish file to take material from.

P97/109-112 and P97/157-8 Market Drayton baps 1808-12

27     Dec  1819         Eliza               dau     Thomas & Elizabeth Wheelock       Tyrley Castle, farmer

printout obtained, will be in the post to you tomorrow.

P97/175-8 Market Drayton burs 1819-41

15     Jun   1822         Elizabeth Wheelock                                                                                                              Tyrley                                       42

This appeared to be your Thomas’ mother.  Printout obtained.

7       Mar 1836         Mary Wheelock                                                                                              Drayton                  32

8       Feb  1837         Ann Wheelock                                                                                                Drayton                  76

27     Jun   1838         Thomas John           Wheelock                                                                     Drayton                  inf

11     Sep  1838         John Wheelock                                                                                               Drayton                  31 *

The Ann here could just possibly be Thomas senior’s mother, though he didn’t use the name for a daughter so far as we know so could be a stepmother or aunt.

I wanted to check some of these findings on Shropshire IGI but unfortunately the fiche for Wheelock had disappeared.  I did however look at Staffs.:

Children on Thomas and Elizabeth in Cheadle – can now be ruled out because overlap date in Market Drayton above.

Children of Thomas and Elizabeth in Colwich, Emma 1804 and John 1807 – this John looks like the one buried MD in 1838 and so these baps should be checked out.

Finally I decided to investigate the Elizabeth Walford who married Thomas senior.  Would she have been 42 at burial in 1822?

IGI Shropshire showed Elizabeth bap 1780 to a William and Mary Walford in Prees *.  This William and Mary also had a Thomas bap in Prees in 1770 – remember the witness to the marriage was a Thomas.  So I feel sure this is the right Elizabeth and therefore the right marriage. 

* printouts not possible because too late in the day to have them done – I can get them next time if you would like them.

Work done at Stafford CRO 30/7/99, 1.0-4.30

Because Stafford has better listing for census returns I was able to find Tyrley quite easily:

CEN41/10-11, HO107/988/2  fo.7, p.3 Tyrley Castle

Emma Minor            35                   farmer                                                                                                   Y

Sarah Minor             13                                             N

Walter Minor           10                                              Y

George Minor          6                                                Y

Mary Minor              5                                                Y

+ 4 servants.

Fo.3, p.1 The Hills, Tyrley

William Minor         35                   farmer                                                                                                   Y

Mary Minor              15                                              Y

William Minor         12                                              Y

Sarah Minor             11                                              Y

Alice Minor               30                   Ind.                   N

+ 6 servants

I felt there was a chance this could be the Emma bap in Colwich in 1804 and William Minor could have been her husband (I’ve seen husband and wife with 2 separate households before on census where one or other parent has recently died and they are having to keep 2 farms running for a while) as none of the children clash and neither seems to have a spouse.  So I thought it worth going on to 1851:

CEN51/63 HO107/1996 fo.312, p.8 Tyrley

Emma Minor            hd                   wid      53 farmer of 200 acres                                                   Maer

Sarah Frances Minor  dau            u          22                                                                                                                   Salop, Longford

Wingfield H. Minor                        s          u           18                                                             farmer’s son                  Tyrley

+ 6 servants.

Fo.313, p.10 Hills Farm

William Minor         hd                   wid      49 farmer of 215 acres                                            Longford

Alice A. Minor          sis                   u          44  annuitant                                                                                      Salop, Preeson (sic)

+ 1 servant.

So I was still hopeful that Emma was Thomas senior’s daughter, though age and place of birth were not quite right.  In any case this is a good indication of date of Thomas senior’s death or move from Tyrley as Emma seems to have gone there in c.1830.

Nest I tried for a will for Thomas senior, or indeed any other Wheelock wills.

D848 Tyrley Manor probate index negative.

CAL/7 Lichfield Diocese Peculiar wills calendar 1570-1857 (includes Prees)

                  1796         William Walford     Prees “at Shrewsbury”

8       Jul    1820         Mary Wheelock       Burton

I feel this must be Elizabeth’s father’s will and I think it would be worth checking even though the marriage was later than this – did she have any property left to her?

CAL/5 1776-1820 and CAL/6 1821-60 Lichfield Diocese Consistory wills (includes most of east Shropshire and all Staffordshire except peculiars, plus disputed wills from peculiars and those with property in more than one peculiar/parish.  There were a series of Wheelock from Grindon and Dilhorne which I am not writing up for the moment since this is well away from the right area and the lines there seem to continue past the point where they could tie to yours:

4       Feb  1790         Mary Wheelock       Cheswardine

27     Apr   1837         William Whilock      Stone

26     Jul    1848         George Wheelock   Barton-under-Needwood

So nothing here.  I think you should maybe now check the PCC wills in the PRO (now at the FRC I think but no index for this period).  You should start from 1819 and go if necessary to 1851 for the moment I think.  It seems unlikely that he would not have left one, and perhaps as he had apparently some wealth the family opted for the status of PCC probate, or maybe he had land in more than one diocese which necessitates PCC probate, as would a dispute.

Next I checked the IGI for Shropshire:

12     Feb  1829         Emma Wheelock mar Jonathan Buckley in Market Drayton.

This seems likely to be Thomas senior’s daughter and knocks my census theory, though he could have died and she remarried.  I think this marriage should be checked.

22     Aug  1833         John Wheelock mar Mary Dale in Market Drayton

This seems to be John born in Colwich and the mar may prove this by witnesses, should certainly be checked.  It seems likely that this was the Mary who died there in 1836.  Need to check for a bap for Mary Dale c.1804.

28     May 1838         John Thomas           s John & Susan Wheelock                          Market Drayton

I think this may be John remarried in view of second name (and switch of names when this infant was buried);  then John died and this Susan carried on in MD as per census above.  Again the bap record needs to be seen in full.

1       May 1801         Mary              dau     Thomas & Elizabeth Wheelock Weston under Redcastle

I think this could be the first bap to Thomas senior – I’m not just sure where this place is, but if it is Weston and Wixhill as per my Phillimore’s Atlas, then it is adjacent to Hodnet and Prees.  If it is theirs, then the chances are strong that Thomas’ mother was Mary.

12     Dec  1830         Christiana     dau     George & Mararet Willock                        Market Drayton

Interesting this – could Thomas and Elizabeth have had a George that we don’t yet know of – there are gaps in the run of baps to them even now.

27     Dec  1776         Thomas         s          Thomas & Mary Willock                                       Boningale

This is a long way south, against the Staffs. border so may not be relevant, but it’s about the earliest ref in Shropshire so must be considered.

Next I checked the Colwich baps:

F874/1/7 Colwich PR specific refs:

23     Mar 1804         Emma            dau     Thomas & Elizabeth Whelock of  Shugborough

3       Jan   1807         John               s          Thomas & Elizabeth Wheelock of the Manor Farm at Shugborough

burials to 1812 were negative.

F874/1/6 mars 1790-1804 negative, so this couple were not married there and I rather think they are yours.  The occupation and status appears correct.

I don’t know if you know of Shugborough – it’s now a National Trust property though still the home of the Queen’s cousin and photographer, Patrick, Lord Lichfield.  What was the manor farm, presumably, is now the historic/experimental farm which is open to the public as part of the estate.  I wonder if there is some connection of the Lichfield family with Tyrley and Hodnet?  I didn’t have a chance to follow this up because it’s holiday season and neither of the archivists, as opposed to search room assistants, was on duty in the search room.  But I think it bears looking into.  And it might be worth looking at the 1841 census for Shugborough, too, in case Thomas senior “inherited” the tenure of the farm from his father, or any of his children from him.

Then I checked IGI for a Buckley/Minor marriage, still hoping to track down Emma, but there was nothing.

The most likely parish for events for people living in Tyrley, apart from Market Drayton, was Mucklestone, since this was actually the nearest church building.  So I thought it worth ruling out for Thomas’ burial:

F4610/13 Mucklestone PR burs 1813-51 negative.

Finally I thought it worth checking the various 1851 census index volumes for Staffordshire:

HO107/

1996 negative (this includes Market Drayton, Mucklestone, Tyrley)

2009 negative

  • Wheelock on fo. 593, 607, 605 (all Trentham)
  • negative

2002 negative

2003 negative

2004 negative

2005 negative

  • negative
  • Wheelock on p.85 (Longton, near the Caverswall boundary and probably the Dilhorne line)
  • Wheelock on fo. 762 (Grindon)

2009 Wheelock on fos. 366,378,382,383,385,463 (Dilhorne)

2010 Wheelock on fo. 457 (Hanbury, Uttoxeter)

2011 negative

2012 Wheelock on fo. 23, 65 (Burton) and 397 (Barton under Needwood)

2013 negative

2014 negative

2015 negative

2016 Wheelock on fo. 637 (Essington)

2017 negative

2018 negative

2019 negative

2020 negative

2021 negative

2022 negative

2023 Wheelock on fo. 335 (Walsall)

2024 negative

2025 Wheelock on fo. 134 and 574 (West Bromwich)

2026 negative

2027 negative

2028 negative

2029 negative

2030 negative

2031 negative

2146 negative

Let me know if you think it worth checking any or all of these for details – some were variant spellings.

Finally I have checked the 1881 census index for Joseph – and found him!!

RG11/1391    Folio 38    Page 21 26 South Rd., Edmonton, Middlesex

Charles Phillip WILLIAMS              hd           m            52          Wine Merchant Hackney, Middlesex

Sophie WILLIAMS                            wf          m            38                                        Islington, Middlesex

Herbert WILLIAMS                          s             u             13                                        Islington, Middlesex

Frederick WILLIAMS                       s             u             9                                           Islington, Middlesex

Charles WILLIAMS                           s             u             4                                           Islington, Middlesex

Stanley WILLIAMS                           s             u             3                                           Islington, Middlesex

Joseph WHEELOCK                         fa-in-law wid      68          Solicitor In The Supreme Court

              Tynby Castle, Stafford

Anny Cunstance WILLIAMS          nc                         21                                        Islington, Middlesex

There is no Tynby in Staffs., age is right, so I think this is your man.   It should now be possible to find his death in the GRO index, and then look for a will – let me know if you wish me to do these, or you may be able to do them yourself?  You or I could also try for a birth for Sophie or bap in 1842/3 – if we could find this it would give us Joseph’s wife’s name and perhaps an address for the 1841 census.  

Photos 19th Century – Buckley Line

This is the Female Wheelock line of Emma Wheelock who married Jonathan Buckley that migrated to Peru, there are still some in Peru but the Wheelock name has long since disappeared. I am still digitizing all the photos. Click on the links to see the photos.

Maria Buckley

Julia Buckley and Friends

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