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The Guano empire and Britain’s other Informal empire.

Let’s start this blog with a bit of controversy! Most people do not associate the British Empire with South America.  However, some of England’s very first footsteps into empire building took place along the Northern shore of this Continent. Some influenced by the new diaspora of American Exiles (loyalists) who fled in 1783 after the last British forces pulled out of New York. (1)            

Furthermore, Britain was to play a leading role in challenging Spanish control of the vast continent and provided help and expertise to revolutionaries and nationalists in the wake of the Napoleonic Wars. (2)

South America was to become a key part of Britain’s ‘Informal Empire’ especially in the Nineteenth but also into the first half of the Twentieth Century. Britain provided investment, expertise and technology throughout most of the continent as she gained much of the value of Empire without the unnecessary costs and burdens of formal control and governance. Britain’s relationship to South America was to be very different from her relationships to most of the rest of the World – but no less influential. (3)

In this environment Peru rose from the ashes on the back of Guano exports and became a period of stability for Peru and the foreigners known as the Guano era. Thomas Wheelock found his opportunity to make his fortune.

The term “Guano” applies to natural mineral deposits consisting of excrements, eggshells and carcasses of dead seabirds found in almost rainless, hot-dry climatic regions and corresponding fertilizers. The most significant nitrogen Guano is the Peru-Guano, which has been used over 2000 years as agricultural fertilizer in Peru. (4)

The age of guano

A decisive turning point came in 1838 when two merchants sent samples of the Peru Guano to William Myers, a successful businessman from Liverpool, who was also interested in agriculture. The fertilization trials he has carried out with these samples must have been successful that Myers invested in Guano trading and ordered a larger quantity for the first time.

On July 23, 1839, 30 bags of Guano reached the port of Liverpool with the ship “Heroine” from Valparaiso, and Myers distributed the Guano to other interested farmers for experimental purposes.

For the first time, crop yields skyrocketed, and the bird fertilizer proved to be far superior to the hitherto common manure and the “Night Soil” harvested from the city latrines. At the instigation of William Myers, his local Peruvian business partner, Don Francisco Quirós, in Lima, signed a treaty with the Peruvian state on November 10, 1840, for the monopoly on all Guano mining.

The demand for Guano rose rapidly in England and shortly thereafter in the rest of Europe. The Guano boom began, what began as a rental contract system granted to an investor, Francisco Quirós, resulted in an agreement that granted the State 64 percent of the profits and finally agreed to give the latter 75 percent of the liquid income. (5)

The commercialization of guano attracted new traders, adventurers and craftsmen not only British but from all over Europe. In the mid-1840s, guano was the main product of Peruvian exports. The guanera islands of Peru were spread across the different provinces of the coast and had accumulated over the year’s immense amounts of bird manure.













The Republic of Peru was in fiscal crisis as it had failed to cover the costs that had been generated since the battles of independence in 1811.Neither the state nor national capitalists could compete with European and American companies in the investments that meant the exploitation of guano. The dominance of foreigners and the absence of Peruvian investors were questioned in the 1850s by Congress, which decided not to sign new contracts if domestic capitalists were not included. Thus, foreigners formed joint ventures, but without allowing national participation to exceed them.

The Profits were incredible, of the records that have survived in one shipment alone: earned around £ 100,000 in the first large quantities of Guano supplies, which, according to current purchasing power, amounts to around £13 million in today’s currency. It was recorded that at one time 1 pound (453 grams) of Guano cost $76 ($2500 in today’s money) (7)

Thomas Wheelock became member of one of the syndicates.

A list of British Investors living in Peru at the time shows the following people:

John Blacker, Alexander Blacker, Stephen Henry Sulivan, John Barton, Edward Robertson, Charles Wilthew, George Hodges Nugent, Charles Higginson, Henry Swayne, Clements R. Markham, Charles Edward Stubbs, Charles Eggert, Samuel Went, William Pitt Adams, William Russell Grace, Thomas Eldredge, Thomas Wheelock, Pedro Terry, John Rowe, Charles Rowe, John Mathison, Thomas Conroy, Joseph Brown, James Henry, George Logan, Charles Thomas, G. J. Rodewald, Gerald Garland, John Gallagher, John Robinson, Charles Williams, Chas. Browne, John and Francis Bryce, John Black, Archibald Smith, J. A. Burnett, J. W. Clarke, John Mackie, Adam Butters, Henry Humphreys, John and Charles Edwards, Thomas Dawson, Gerrit S. Backus, Douglas Hastings, Horatio Bolton, James Graham, Hugh Torrence, James Wingate, Samuel Duncan, Norman Evans, John Ward, John Gunner, Henry Hammond, Charles Kemish, Alex E. Prentice, Walter S. Church, José P. Davis, José Hindle, Thomas Buckley, Max Blum, Henry Hilton Leigh, Thomas Cole. (8)

The investors had to bear all expenses, from extraction to sale. The gross income was denoted for expenses and the net proceeds were divided between the tax office and the Investors. The export enabled Peru to pay their external debt (especially to England) and the payment of internal debt to families and traders who had contributed to the wars of independence or the uprisings that subsequently happened. To claim payment, individuals or families who had collaborated with patriotic causes had to provide consolidation bonds, which were documents certifying the debts and who in some cases bore the signatures of the liberators José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar. (8) (9)

Some reports indicate that some of the investors were making a profit between £30,000.00 to £100,000.00 a year (roughly £4 Million to 13 Million in today’s money), Thomas cashed in around 1862 and moved to Bordeaux, France. Diaries show he made a fabulous fortune leaving his oldest son (Thomas Alfred) in charge of his Peruvian affairs.

The Guano Boom rush was short-lived (20-30 years) partly because the supplies dipped and the discovery of fertilizers through mining and by industrially producing replacing the need to scoop the excrement from the rocks. The new chemical fertilizers could take nitrogen out of the air and deliver it straight to the soil.  It’s thought that artificial fertilizers now feed about half the world. The market wasn’t big enough for the both of them, and guano’s star descended as it had risen, bringing the Peruvian economy down with it.

But while it lasted, the money made by all parties was a fabulous amount that could be compared to the California Gold Rush and Thomas Wheelock took advantage of the opportunity.

NEXT Blog : The Oxford Dictionary of Family Names in Britain and Ireland

1.- Liberty's Exiles: American Loyalists in the Revolutionary World - Maya Jasanoff ISBN-10: 9780007180080
2.- https://www.britishempire.co.uk/resource/southamerica.htm
2.- https://www.britishempire.co.uk/maproom/southamerica.htm
3.- Informal Empire? An Exploration in the History of Anglo-Argentine Relations, 1810–1914 – Volume 24,Issue 2 May 1992 , pp. 419-436 Andrew Thompson
4.- https://www.intechopen.com/books/seabirds/guano-the-white-gold-of-the-seabirds
5.- Fertile Fortune – The Story of Tyntesfield James Miller (25 May 2006). . ISBN 1905400403.
6.- Peruvian Ministry of the Environment
7.- https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/when-the-western-world-ran-on-guano 
8.- https://elmisteriodelpasado.blogspot.com/search?q=Guano
9.- The Diary of Heinrich Witt, Volume 3 & 5
10.- Article in Webblog Intheboatshed.Net. 2011 Jenkins H. Guano trade by W. Myers—. http://intheboatshed.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/Myers-Co.pdf 
11.- In: mare – Die Zeitschrift der Meere, No. 53. Kanter O. Kleckern und klotzen. 2005. http://www.olafkanter.de/pdf/geschichte/ok_kleckernklotzen.pdf

Thomas’s rise to power and the advent of the Guano empire.

Thomas Wheelock Walford (mother’s maiden name) arrived into Lima, Peru circa 1834.  He was around 21 years of age; he is better known as the founder of the Wheelock line in Latin America.

Thomas Wheelock (Circa 1850s)
Thomas Wheelock (Circa 1850s)

After Peru’s Independence (from Spain) the British merchants achieved to place themselves in key (strategic) places of Chile and Peru, in the big cities and in the main seaports from where the British Companies controlled the local and regional trade. It has been estimated that 10% of the British Empire export market reached this new burgeoning market. (1)

There were many Agencies and merchants of the companies of London, Liverpool and Hull such as Gibbs and Co., Read, Huth Gruning & Co. and Bates and Stokes Co. (3) In these booming economies of South America, Thomas arrived into Peru just after his twentieth birthday.

He was born in Market Drayton, hence the connection to Tayleurs House (See first Blog) Shropshire on the 13th of December 1813, the youngest of seven Children the son of Mr. Thomas Wheelock Sherratt and Mrs. Elizabeth Walford. He was baptized in the Independent Methodist Church. Thomas’ Wheelock Walford Family were merchants and farmers.

His father was the steward for the Earl of Lichfield and he was one of the innovators for modernizing of the English Agriculture and some of the modern machinery of the time can still be seen at Park Farm inside the grounds of Shugborough Hall (4)

Entrance to Park Hall Farm in Shugborough

Plaque at the Farm


It is noteworthy that also residing in Peru there were direct relatives to him, Jonathan Buckley from Liverpool who married his older sister Emma and whose daughter (his niece Emma) would have a profound influence in the years to come….. At one point he switches employments to Henry Reed & Co (In other documents known as Henry Read) a subsidiary and representatives of Tayleur House. He worked as Chief Clerk.

The Agency rented out Casa Osambela at the time the grandest house of Lima (three floors Painted Blue in the photo) build in 1793 (by Don Martín de Osambela y Osambela Descendant of one of the grand families of Navarra at the time of his death in 1825 at the Battle of Ayacucho and the last Royalist stand at the Real Felipe Fortress ending Spanish Empire Domination. he left a fortune of at least 1.5 Million pesos Fuertes = ($F) ….17 “Pesos Fuertes” = to one ounce of gold (27.06 grams) ). A fascinating history for another blog but one of the many myths of this gentleman is that he left Spain due to a dalliance with one of the Kings Daughters! (5)

House of Osambela
Main Courtyard of the House Osambela

After Martin Osambela’s death His family was financially ruined and had to find ways to ends meet. Due to the demands of the new republican government and the confiscation of properties. (5)

The house was therefore either sold or rented out to Henry Reed & Co while the Osambela live there, Thomas Wheelock settled in his new employment and there he met around 1836-37 Mariana Osambela a young widow (Her Husband passed away in 1834) and second Daughter of Martin Osambela. Thomas Wheelock married Mariana in 1839, Her full name: Mariana Osambela Ureta was 25 years old. Her mother was Mrs. Mariana Ureta y Bermudez, born in Lima belonged to a well to do family of second-generation Spanish (“criollos”) Despite the financial and political downfall for Martin’s family, Thomas’s marriage to Mariana Osambela Ureta placed him as a prominent family man in Lima’s Society.  (6) (8)

Uniform from the War of Independence at Real Felipe Fortress

Mariana had a daughter from her previous marriage Juana Rosa Riera-Osambela (changed her name to Wheelock after adoption and who survived into adulthood) who married a Scottish engineer by the name of Alexander Prentice from Greenock, Renfrew, Scotland and had 12 or 13 children. (7)

Thomas became a very shrewd businessman with investments in Market speculation and loans to the local markets (many of these loans made for infrastructure were consumed in war and redrawing boundaries).  in the light and gas company of Lima and the Water works. By the mid 1840’s he became the head of the agency at the return of Henry Read back to England and that enable him to build British interests in the region and represent several agencies by the 1850’s. His real fortune would come when he decided to invest in Guano and the Rise of the British Informal Empire. (9)

NEXT Article: The Guano empire.


1.- “A New Economic History of Argentina” Cambridge Alan M. Taylor and Della Paolera Gerardo. University Press 2003

2.- British Trade with Latin America in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Victor Bulmer-Thomas

3.- Anglo Peruvian Commercial and financial relations. 1825-1865. William M. Matthew PHD. Thesis 1970

4.- https://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/shugborough-estate/features/park-farm-at-shugborough

5.- “Don Martín de Osambela, comerciante navarro de los siglos XVIII/XIX, y su descendencia en el Perú” – Anuario de Estudios Americanos , Teodoro Hampe Martinez

6.- The Diary of Heinrich Witt, Volume 3

7.- The Diary of Heinrich Witt, Volume 4

8.- The Wheelock Family in Peru…during the XIX Century… Jaime Wheelock Roman

9.- “The Imperialism of Free Trade” Economic History Review John Gallagher and Ronald Robinson

New Series, Vol. 6, No. 1 (1953), pp. 1-15

Setting the scene and the building of South America -Introduction

Thomas Wheelock arrived in Peru in 1832 with opportunities to be made. Thomas had been hired by the Tayleur House, a merchant and shipping company out of Market Drayton, starting at the bottom of the ladder as a Clerk. Thomas arrives following upheavals in South America which would not be settled until 1850.

To understand the beginning of British influence in South America there needs to be an understanding of the political situation of the entire Latin region. British and European migration to South America was affected by events such as the Napoleonic Invasion of Spain which triggered the Wars of Independence in Latin America and opened new trade markets.

In 1825 Mainland Spanish America split into more than a dozen separate countries, following the administrative divisions of the colonial system. The difficulty for the inhabitants of these countries was not, however, as simple as the demarcation of geographic boundaries. Rather, the recently liberated countries of Latin America faced the much more daunting challenge of defining and consolidating new nations. The inhabitants of each country set out on programs to create a postcolonial political, economic, and social order. The obstacles confronting them were imposing. (1)

This was a land of opportunity due to the collapse of the Spanish Empire and the subsequent wars of Independence creating a political vacuum in the new countries.

To embark on the trip from Europe to South America you needed to have capital or a job secured, the trip took several months. Most Europeans would depart from Liverpool  to Tenerife,  then 5- 6 months across the Atlantic via Tierra Del Fuego to Valparaiso (Or Callao)  – Arica – Quilca. This was no trip for the faint hearted with deaths and seas sickness among common occurrences.

Sometimes a ship on arrival in South America would find their trip diverted to the nearest safe port that was not in battle. An entry from 1824 talks about the Grand Port of Callao and being unable to dock so they were forced to head to Valparaiso:

Samuel Duncan, whom Moens had left in charge of the Lima house when he left about twelve months ago, wrote that business was 50% worse than it then had been. Since February Lima and Callao were again in possession of the Royalists, commanded by Canterrac, to them Callao had been delivered up by mutinous black regiments. Also the Intermedios were occupied by the Spaniards and it was expected that Bolivar would shortly give them battle. The whole coast had been declared under blockade by the Patriots, but this Captain Maling of H.B.M.S. “Cambridge” was only willing to acknowledge as far as regarded Callao, the forces of the Patriots not being sufficient to effect the actual blockade of the other ports. Amongst the English in Valparaiso the embezzlement of about $8000 committed by the Captain’s clerk of H.M.S. “Tartar” gave rise to much talk and conversation. (2)

*(HBMS – Stands for His Britannic Majesty’s Ship)

Depending on social status a European with means and a secured future would meet the likes of Simon Bolivar or the British Consul, European Impressions of Simon Bolivar in 1825 are as follows:

Bolivar was a man of the middle size, and of a spare make. His face of a darkish tinge, His forehead is well shaped and very high. His eyes, the colour of which I could not distinguish are piercing, his nose long and straight, his mouth large; his mustachios thin and long, I thought to become him well; but when he smiled a harsh and deeply marked wrinkle from the nose down to the mouth, became apparent. Amongst his aides-de-camp was an extremely fair youth, with hair which might be called white; he was Belford Hinton Wilson, in later years British Chargé d’Affaires in Perú. (2).

NEXT Article: Thomas’s rise to power and the advent of the Guano empire.


1.- https://www.britannica.com/place/Latin-America/Building-new-nations-1826-50

2.- The Diary of Heinrich Witt, Volume 3

4.- Anglo Peruvian Commercial and financial relations. 1825-1865. William M. Matthew PHD. Thesis 1970

3.- Classwell Images


Happy New Year and Best wishes for 2020

Happy New year to all Wheelock’s, and all the best for 2020.

I’ve signed up to the Guild of One-Name Studies 2020 blogging challenge, and will be aiming to blog here more regularly over the coming months.

The long-term aim is to encourage me and others to blog more here about Wheelock’s research, history and other pertinent information, there will be an influx of posts over the next three months at least 2 a month.

Topics will vary.  Starting with South America before moving on to other regions.

Another theme will be to blog about the Boer War and WW1, two areas rarely discussed.

I will also publish Ancestry.com when appropriate and new family line blogs planned.

If all goes to plan this will be a very busy year. If you have any information or you want to contribute, please contact me.

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